Neurofeedback therapies are used to treat a wide range of disorders, and there are numerous studies investigating how effective the treatment is at helping people manage symptoms.
The Association for Applied Psychophysiology has developed criteria for setting the level of evidence for efficacy. There are five levels, ranging from the highest, Efficacious and Specific to the lowest, Not Empirically Supported.
Neurofeedback training for Anxiety and ADHD is rated at Level 4: Efficacious. This indicates that the treatment is statistically significantly superior to the control condition, or equivalent to a treatment of established efficacy in a study with sufficient power to detect moderate differences.
Neurofeedback training for Autism is rated at Level 3: Probably Efficacious. This efficacy rating indicates that there have been multiple observational studies, clinical studies, wait list controlled studies, and within subject and intrasubject replication studies that demonstrate efficacy.
For further information on efficacy levels and their criteria, please see the Association for Applied Psychophysiology.
A number of peer-reviewed studies conducted in the past ten years have investigated the results of Neurofeedback Training for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Research in this area continues to establish the benefits of Neurofeedback Training.
Baruth, J., Casanova, M., El-Baz, A., Horrell, T., Mathai, G., Sears, L., Sokhadze, E. (2010). Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation modulates evoked-gamma frequency oscillations in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy 14(3), 179 – 194.
Coben, R., & Myers, T. E. (2010). The relative efficacy of connectivity guided and symptom based EEG biofeedback for autistic disorders. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeedback, 35(1), 13-23.
Coben, R. (2007). Connectivity-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. Biofeedback, 35(4), 131-135.
Coben, R., & Pudolsky, I. (2007). Assessment-guided neurofeedback for autistic spectrum disorder. Journal of Neurotherapy, 11(1), 5-23.
Jarusiewicz, G. (2007). Use of neurofeedback with autistic spectrum disorders. Chapter in J. R. Evans (Ed.), Handbook of Neurofeedback. Binghampton, NY: Haworth Medical Press, pp. 321-339
Jarusiewicz, B. (2002). Efficacy of neurofeedback for children in the autistic spectrum: A pilot study. Journal of Neurotherapy, 6(4), 39-49.
Knezevic, B., Thompson, L., & Thompson, M. (2010). Pilot project to ascertain the utility of Tower of London Test to assess outcomes of neurofeedback in clients with Asperger’s Syndrome. Journal of Neurotherapy, 14(3), 3-19.
Kouijzer, M. E. UJ., de Moor, J. M. H., Gerrits, B. J. L., Buitelaar, J. K., & van Schie, H. T. (2009). Long-term effects of neurofeedback treatment in autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 3, 496-501.
Pineda JA, Brang D, Hecht E, Edwards L, Carey S, Bacon M, Futagaki C, Suk D, Tom J, Birnbaum C, Rork A.(2008). Positive behavioral and electrophysiological changes following neurofeedback training in children with autism. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders 2. 557-581.
Pineda, J. A., Brang, D., Futagaki, C., Hecht, E., Grichanik, M., Wood, L., Bacon, M., & Carey, S. (2007). Effects of neurofeedback training on action comprehension and imitation learning. Chapter in Puckhaber, H. L. (Ed.), New research in biofeedback. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 133-152.
Scolnick, B. (2005). Effects of electroencephalogram biofeedback with Asperger's syndrome. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, 28(2), 159-163.
Sichel, A. G., Fehmi, L. G., & Goldstein, D. M. (1995). Positive outcome with neurofeedback treatment of a case of mild autism. Journal of Neurotherapy, 1(1), 60-64.
Sokhadze, E., Baruth, J., El-Baz, A., Horrell, T., Sokhadze, G., Carroll, T., Tasman, A., Sears, L., Casanova, M. (2010). Impaired error monitoring and correction function in Autism. Journal of Neurotherapy 14(2), 79-95.
Disclaimer: The above articles, documents or publications have been provided for informational purposes only. Their inclusion on this website does not indicate that SOS BC endorses any statement made in any of these documents, articles, or publications.
Questions about Neurofeedback training’s effects on Autism, ADHD, Anxiety and associated symptoms?
Doug West, Manager of Autism Services
Phone: 604-574-2964 ext. 106